The “Point prevalence survey of healthcare associated infections and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals” protocol adopts the following definition of Bloodstream Infection (BSI).
Laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (BSI):
- one positive blood culture for a recognised pathogen
- patient has at least one of the following signs or symptoms: fever (> 38 °C), chills, or hypotension
- two positive blood cultures for a common skin contaminant (from two separate blood samples, usually within 48 hours).
Skin contaminants are considered: coagulase-negative staphylococci (including S. epidermidis), Micrococcus spp., Propionibacterium acnes, Bacillus spp., Corynebacterium spp.
Sources of bloodstream infection are considered:
- Catheter-related: the same microorganism was cultured from the catheter or symptoms improve within 48 hours after removal of the catheter (C-PVC: peripheral catheter, C-CVC: central vascular catheter)
- Secondary to another infection: the same microorganism was isolated from another infection site, or strong clinical evidence exists that bloodstream infection was secondary to another infection site, invasive diagnostic procedure or foreign body:
- pulmonary (S-PUL);
- urinary tract infection (S-UTI);
- digestive tract infection (S-DIG);
- surgical site infection (S-SSI);
- skin and soft tissue (S-SST);
- other (e.g. meningitis, osteomyelitis, etc.) (S-OTH).
- Unknown origin (UO): none of the above, bloodstream infection of unknown origin (verified during survey and no source found)
- Unknown (UNK): no information available about the source of the bloodstream infection or information missing
Link to European IC/HH Core Competencies
Area 3. Surveillance and investigation of healthcare associated infection (HAI)
Horan TC, Emori TG. Definitions of keyterms used in the NNIS system. AJIC AM J of Infect Control 1997;25:112-6