Field Epidemiology Manual Wiki

ECDC PPS - inclusionexclusion criteria

Last modified at 4/23/2016 5:36 AM by Carl Suetens

The “Point prevalence survey of healthcare associated infections and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals” protocol has the following inclusion/exclusion criteria:

  • hospitals:
    • all acute care hospitals are eligible for inclusion without size limits. An acute care hospital is defined according to national definitions.


  • wards:
    • Include all wards in acute-care facilities, including, for example, chronic care and long-term care wards, acute psychiatric wards and neonatal ICUs.
    • Excluded: accident & emergency department (except for wards attached to A&E departments where patients are monitored for more than 24 hours).

    • The ward specialty is always recorded so that results can be stratified and standardised.

  •  patients:
    • all patients admitted to the ward before or at 8 a.m. and not discharged from the ward at the time of the survey are included; in practice, this means that patients transferred in/out after 8 a.m. from/to another ward should not be included (see Figure 1). Neonates on maternity and paediatric wards if born before/at 8 a.m. are include. Long-term care patients in acute care wards are included unless more than 20% of the patients in the acute care ward are long-term care patients.
    • exclude day cases:
      • patients undergoing same day treatment or surgery;
      • patients seen at outpatient department;
      • patients in the emergency room;
      • dialysis patients (outpatients).


Figure 1 Examples of included and excluded patients in the point prevalence survey.

Legend. W1: ward 1, W2: ward 2

Further specifications  for inclusion/exclusion criteria:

  • patients who are temporarily off from the ward for diagnostic investigations/procedures must be included; if patient does not return to the ward before the end of the PPS day and information about patient is not available at 8 a.m., it will be necessary to revisit ward;
  • patients who are on the patient administration system but at home for a number of hours must be included.


Link to European IC/HH Core Competencies

Area 3. Surveillance and investigation of healthcare associated infection (HAI)